History of Stem Cell

Stem Cell’s Story :

뼚 1908: The term “stem cell” was proposed for scientific use by the Russian histologist, Alexander Maksimov (18741928) at congress of hematologic society in Berlin. It postulated existence of hematopoietic stem cells.
뼚 1968: Bone marrow transplant between two siblings.
뼚 1978: Haematopoietic stem cells are discovered in human cord blood
뼚 1981: Mouse embryonic stem cells are derived from the inner cell mass by scientists Martin Evans,and Gail R. Martin. Gail Martin is attributed for coining the term “Embryonic Stem Cell”.
뼚 1996: dolly the sheep CLONE
뼚 1997: Leukemia is shown to originate from a haematopoietic stem cell, the first direct evidence for cancer stem cells.
뼚 1998: James Thomson and coworkers derive the first human embryonic stem cell line at the University of Wisconsin밠adison.
뼚 20042005: Korean researcher Hwang Woo-Suk claims to have created several human embryonic stem cell lines from unfertilised human oocytes. The lines were later shown to be fabricated.
뼚 August, 2006: Mouse Induced pluripotent stem cells: the journal Cell publishes Kazutoshi Takahashi and Shinya Yamanaka.
뼚 October, 2006: Scientists at Newcastle University in England create the first ever artificial liver cells using umbilical cord blood stem cells.
뼚 January, 2007: Scientists at Wake Forest University led by Dr. Anthony Atala and Harvard University report discovery of a new type of stem cell in amniotic fluid. This may potentially provide an alternative to embryonic stem cells for use in research and therapy.
뼚 2012: Shinya Yamanaka and John Gurdon were awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for the discovery that mature cells can be converted to stem cells.


Stem Cell Timeline


1.Gurdon, JB, Elsdale TR, Fischberg M. Sexually mature individuals of Xenopus laevis from the transplantation of single somatic nuclei. Nature 182: 6565. 1958.
2.Till J, McCulloch E. A direct measurement of the radiation sensitivity of normal mouse bone marrow cells. Radiation Research 14 (2): 213222, 1961.
3.Jaenisch R, Mintz B. Simian virus 40 DNA sequences in DNA of healthy adult mice derived from preimplantation blastocysts injected with viral DNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 71(4): 12501254, 1974.
4.Evans M, Kaufman M. Establishment in culture of pluripotential cells from mouse embryos. Nature 292 (5819): 154156, 1981.
5.Martin G. Isolation of a pluripotent cell line from early mouse embryos cultured in medium conditioned by teratocarcinoma stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78 (12): 76347638, 1981.
6.Campbell KHS, McWhir J, Ritchie WA, Wilmut I. Sheep cloned by nuclear transfer from a cultured cell line. Nature 380 (6569): 6466, 1996.
7.Jones J, Marshall V, Swiergiel J, Waknitz M, Shapiro S, Itskovits-Eldor J, Thomson J. Embryonic stem cell lines derived from human blastocysts. Science 282 (5391): 11451147, 1998.
8.Takahashi K, Yamanaka S. Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic and adult fibroblast cultures by defined factors. Cell 126: 663676, 2006.
9.Takahashi K, Tanabe K, Ohnuki M, Narita M, Ichisaka T, Tomoda K, Yamanaka S. Induction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors. Cell 131: 861872, 2007.
10.Nakagawa M, Koyanagi M, Tanabe K, Takahashi K, Ichisaka T, Aoi T, Okita K, Mochiduki Y, Takizawa N, Yamanaka S. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells without Myc from mouse and human fibroblasts. Nat Biotechnol 26: 2008, Epub 2007 Nov 30.
11.Yu J, Vodyanik M, Smuga-Otto K, Antosiewicz-Bourget J, Frane J, Tian S, Nie J, Jonsdottir G, Ruotti V, Stewart R, Slukvin I, Thomson J. Induced pluripotent stem cell lines derived from human somatic cells. Science 318: 1917-1920, 2007. Epub Nov 2007.
12.Hanna J, Wernig M, Markoulaki S, Sun CW, Meissner A, Cassady CP, Beard C, Brambrink T, Wu LC, Townes TM, Jaenisch R. Treatment of sickle cell anemia mouse model with iPS cells generated from autologous skin. Science 318(5858): 1920-1923, 2007.
13.Wernig M, Zhao JP, Pruszak J, Hedlund E, Fu D, Soldner F, Broccoli V, Constantine-Paton M, Isacson O, Jaenisch R. Neurons derived from reprogrammed fibroblasts functionally integrate into the fetal brain and improve symptoms of Parkinson셲 disease. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105(15): 5856-5861, 2008.
14.Okita K, Nakagawa M, Hyenjong H, Ichisaka T, Yamanaka S. Generation of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells without viral vectors. Science 322 (5903): 949-953, 2008.
15.Vierbuchen T, Ostermeier A, Pang ZP, Kokubu Y, Sudhof TC, Wernig M. Direct conversion of fibroblasts to functional neurons by defined factors. Nature 463 (7284): 1035-41. Epub 2010 Jan 27.
16.Ieda M, Fu J, Delgado-Olguin P, Vedantham V, Hayashi Y, Bruneau B, Srivastava D. Direct reprogramming of fibroblasts into functional cardiomyocytes by defined factors. Cell 142: 375-386, 2010.
17.Szabo E, Rampalli S, Risueno R, Schnerch A, Mitchell R, Fiebig-Comyn A, Levadoux-Martin M, Bhatia M. Direct conversion of human fibroblasts to multilineage blood progenitors. Nature 468: 521-526, 2010.
18.Zhu S, Li W, Zhou H, Wei W, Ambasudhan R, Lin T, Kim J, Zhang K, Ding S. Reprogramming of human primary somatic cells by OCT4 and chemical compounds. Cell Stem Cell 7:651655, 2010.
19.Ambasudhan R, Talantova M, Coleman R, Yuan X, Zhu S, Lipton S, Ding S. Direct reprogramming of adult human fibroblasts to functional neurons under defined conditions. Cell Stem Cell 9: 113-118, 2011.
20.Qian L, Huang Y, Spencer CI, Foley A, Vedantham V, Liu L, Conway SJ, Fu JD, Srivastava D. In vivo reprogramming of murine cardiac fibroblasts into induced cardiomyocytes. Nature 485: 5938, 2012.
21.The HD iPSC Consortium. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Patients with Huntington셲 Disease Show CAG-Repeat-Expansion-Associated Phenotypes. Cell Stem Cell 11:264-278, 2012.
23.Ring KL, Tong LM, Balestra ME, Javier R, Andrews-Zwilling Y, Li G, Walker D, Zhang WR, Kreitzer AC, Huang Y. Direct reprogramming of mouse and human fibroblasts into multipotent neural stem cells with a single factor. Cell Stem Cell 11: 100-9, 2012.
24.Tomoda K, Takahashi K, Leung K, Okada A, Narita M, Yamada NA, Eilertson KE, Tsang P, Baba S, White MP, Sami S, Srivastava D, Conklin BR, Panning B, Yamanaka S. Derivation conditions impact x-inactivation status in female human induced pluripotent stem cells. Cell Stem Cell 11: 91-9, 2012.