Bone Marrow derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Potentiality

Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal혻stem cells have potentiality of tissue혻regeneration and repair. They are known for their ability to self-renew and differentiate into diverse lineages while maintaining혻low immunogenicity.

History of Bone Marrow Stem Cells

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were first혻identified in the 1960s by Ernest A McCulloch and James혻E. Till as being a clonal source of cells for further use.
Further experiments in the 1970s and 80s by Friedenstein et혻al. expanded upon the potential of MSCs by demonstrating혻their capacity for self-renewal and multilineage differentiation.


The therapeutic potential for MSCs.

Stem cells are defined by their potency, the capacity혻to differentiate into a variety of cells, and cell lineages.
Embryonic stem cells, as their name implies, are cultured혻from the inner cell mass of blastocysts during early혻embryonic development and have received a good deal혻of attention due to their potential for misuse and ethical혻consideration. These cells are undifferentiated at the time혻of harvest and therefore are pluripotent with the ability혻to develop into any cell type. MSCs are an adult stem혻cell isolated not only from bone marrow but also from혻most adult tissue including adipose, liver, amniotic fluid,lung, skeletal muscle, and kidney. However, one advantage of bone marrow is the ease with which these cells are혻cultured. Furthermore, their differentiation into osteocytes,혻adipocytes, chondrocytes, hepatocytes, and myocytes has혻been extensively characterized, with the further possibility혻of differentiation into cardiomyocytes and neurons.

Even more recent investigations suggest that MSCs can differentiate into endodermal lineage as well.

There are many reasons why researchers have been혻enamored by MSCs. Even though only a small percentage혻of cells in the bone marrow are MSCs, they are easily혻isolated because of their affinity and adherence to plastic. Even a small number of MSC can multiply into혻millions of cells under the right culture conditions. Extensive혻protocols have been delineated for culturing stem cells in a혻variety of animals including humans. MSCs do not express혻MHC II rendering them nonimmunogenic, thus precluding혻the need for lifelong immunosuppression with allogenic혻transplantation. Also, intravenous injection allows for safe, fast, and easy transplantation of MSCs into the host.
We expect to these cells’ all-purpose혻potentiality in current and future applications in regenerative medicine.
Source혻:혻Stem Cells International /혻Volume 2010, Article ID 765167, 5 pages

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