Faqs

stem cell therapy (4)

Q: Pros and cons of a stem cell transplant?
1. This depends on the type of transplant (autologous-your own cells; allogeneic-donor cells), the disease that is being treated and the status of the disease.
Stem cell transplants do have a higher toxicity than most standard treatments but in many cases can control the underlying cancer for a longer period of time and can cure many cancers that cannot be cured with standard therapy.

 

2. Hematopoietic stem cell transplants are the only type in routine use, and are much like other organ transplants except that the immune reaction is typically from the donor cells vs. the patients tissues. Not an issue for those who receive their own cells (autologous). Attempts to transplant stem cells of other organs have met with limited succes and need to overcome rejection and limited growth.
 Source: HealthTap, https://www.healthtap.com/user_questions/240135 

Please log in to rate this.
0 people found this helpful.


Q: The first European embryonic stem cell therapy?
A: The first European embryonic stem cell therapy in humans is about to start in London. Surgeons will insert the controversial cells into the eyes of 12 patients suffering from Stargardt’s macular dystrophy, a major cause of blindness in young people.
The study was approved on Thursday and is set to begin in December at Moorfields Eye Hospital. A similar study to treat the same eye disease started in July in the United States at the Jules Stein Eye Institute at the University of California, Los Angeles. Both studies are using cells created by Advanced Cell Technology based in Marlborough, Massachusetts (watch the surgery here).
The first-ever embryonic stem cell clinical trial in the United State launched last year. That study uses cells from Geron in Menlo Park, California.
main_cont03
Because embryonic stem cells are the “master cells” of the body and can become every type of human cell, scientists think they could provide promising treatments for just about any disease you can think of, replacing and possibly regenerating diseased cells or tissue. But the cells are controversial because embryos are destroyed to make them, and some people equate a days-old nearly microscopic embryo with a born baby.
Also, you probably feel like you’ve been hearing about stem cell studies for forever. How can this be the first European human trial? Or maybe you thought the whole stem cell thing was a bust since there hasn’t been all that much news about it lately.
Well, medical science is a slow process, and it has to be that way to make sure treatments work and to protect patients. Forging ahead with experimental medical treatments without proper oversight like Rick Perry advocates is what needlessly drains desperate families’ bank accounts on an ineffective treatment or, worse, kills them.
You’ll likely be hearing a lot more about stem cell research as the presidential elections approach – not necessarily because there will be more promising research, but because politicians like to milk the abortion issue. Something to look forward to!
Source : http://gizmodo.com/5842939/embryonic-stem-cells-tapped-for-european-study-combatting-blindness

Please log in to rate this.
0 people found this helpful.


stemcells_02

Q:In what countries are embroynic stem cell transplants available?
Cell therapy using embroynic stem cells is currently under clinical study. It was not yet commonplace.
Use of adult mesenchymal stem-stromal cells (mscs) are currently in clinical trial in us/internationally.
Trend is toward use of fat derived mscs, havested by liposuction, isolated and concentrated in tissue culture. Early reports suggest significant improvement in neurological, autoimmune and organ functions. Many more mscs in fat than bone marrow making ad-msc the center of most research now.
Edited by AllStemCells.com
Source: HealthTap.com

Please log in to rate this.
0 people found this helpful.


main_cont07

Q: What illnesses can be cured using stem cell transplants?
A: The main lethal disease treated with stem cell transplants are hematologic malignancies such as leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma. Bone marrow failure (aplastic anemia) is also treated with stem cell transplants. Some life-threatening genetic disease can also be treated with a transplant.
Recently, adipose derived stem cells(ADSCs) are used for arthritis, cartilage damage, depressed scars, cosmetic surgery, etc. ADSC are under clinical trials to diseases such as diabetes, dementia, brain injury, reproduction disorders. Acute myocardial infarction therapies using stem cells from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal received approval as a therapeutic agent in South Korea.
Edited by AllStemCells.com
References: HealthTap.com

Please log in to rate this.
0 people found this helpful.


disease (3)

 

Q: How can we know for sure that our forgetfulness isn셳 an early sign of the brain disease?
A: What is an early sign of the Alzheimer’s disease? So you forgot your neighbor셲 name that one time. If it popped up a few hours later, you probably just had a brain fart. Even a few of these memory lapses shouldn셳 be taken too seriously, since they셱e likely to happen when you셱e stressed, anxious, depressed, or not sleeping enough. But if forgetfulness begins to affect your daily life say, you suddenly spaced on how to get to work see your doctor.
The fact that your family had Alzheimer셲 means your risk could be tripled.
There셲 no single test to diagnose the disease, so you셝 probably undergo memory and neurological exams, blood tests, and an MRI or a CAT scan to suss out the potential problem. Even if you셱e given the allclear, keep beefing up your brain셲 resiliency. Walking or jogging just a few times a week can prevent brain atrophy, one hallmark of
Alzheimer셲, according to a study in Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience.
Source : MHM

Please log in to rate this.
0 people found this helpful.


Q: What is cancer?
A: The body is made up of trillions of living cells. Normal body cells grow, divide to make new cells, and die in an orderly way. During the early years of a person셲 life, normal cells divide faster to allow the person to grow. After the person becomes an adult, most cells divide only to replace worn-out or dying cells or to repair injuries.
Cancer begins when cells in a part of the body start to grow out of control. There are many kinds of cancer, but they all start because of out-of-control growth of abnormal cells.
Cancer cell growth is different from normal cell growth. Instead of dying, cancer cells
continue to grow and form new, abnormal cells. In most cases the cancer cells form a
tumor. Cancer cells can also invade (grow into) other tissues, something that normal cells
cannot do. Growing out of control and invading other tissues are what makes a cell a
cancer cell.
cancer-development
Cells become cancer cells because of damage to DNA. DNA is in every cell and directs all its actions. In a normal cell, when DNA is damaged the cell either repairs the damage or the cell dies. In cancer cells, the damaged DNA is not repaired, but the cell doesn셳 die like it should. Instead, this cell goes on making new cells that the body doesn셳 need.
These new cells will all have the same damaged DNA as the first abnormal cell does. People can inherit damaged DNA, but most often the DNA damage is caused by mistakes that happen while the normal cell is reproducing or by something in our environment. Sometimes the cause of the DNA damage is something obvious, like cigarette smoking. But often no clear cause is found.
Cancer cells often travel to other parts of the body, where they begin to grow and form
new tumors that replace normal tissue. This process is called metastasis. It happens when
the cancer cells get into the bloodstream or lymph vessels of our body.
Reference : www.cancer.org

Please log in to rate this.
0 people found this helpful.


What is diabetes?
People with diabetes have too much sugar in their bloodstream.
When you eat, your body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose.
The hormone insulin helps your body absorb glucose and use it for energy. But in people with diabetes, the body either doesn셳 make enough insulin or doesn셳 use it properly. As a result, glucose builds up in the blood; left untreated, that can lead to serious health problems. There are several types of diabetes:
Type1 Diabetes
TYPE 1, previously called juvenile diabetes, is usually diagnosed during childhood.
The immune system attacks cells in the pancreas, destroying its ability to make insulin.
Type2 Diabetes
TYPE 2, the most common form, affects more than 90 percent of people with the disease. Your body doesn셳 use insulin properly봞 condition known as insulin resistance. At first, your pancreas makes extra insulin to compensate, but over time it can셳 make enough to keep blood glucose at normal levels. Eventually, the insulin producing cells in the pancreas might burn out because of this overproduction.
However, in earlier phases the illness can be managed with diet, exercise and monitoring of blood sugar.

Please log in to rate this.
0 people found this helpful.


Cell (1)

 

Q: What are Cytokines?
Cytokines are signaling molecules produced by immune system cells. These molecules help different branches of the immune system talk to each other and respond to threats. After cells release them, they bind target receptors on other cells to alter cell function. The molecules can ramp up the immune system or tone it down.
Examples of cytokine types include colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), interferons (IFNs), interleukins (ILs), and growth factors (Table). Covered here are the most clinically relevant cytokines and their functions.
Cytokines are released in response to an interaction between T cells, an antigen-presenting cell (e.g., a macrophage or dendritic cell), and an antigen that stimulates an immune response. The cytokines produced depend on the type ofT cell involved (termed a ‘T-cell subset’) and the cytokine profile of that subset.
Major subsets include T-helper ThO, Th I, Th2, and Th 17:
ThO cells are unrestricted. They are naive T cells that can respond to novel antigens that the immune system has not yet encountered.
Th1 cells produce IFN-gamma, IL-2; are important in cell-mediated immune response (e.g., delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction); and are stimulated by the IL-12 superfamily.
Th2 cells produce IL-4 , IL-IO; are important in humoral immune response (antibody development and allergic responses); and are stimulated by IL-4, IL-I 8, and IL-33, working together.
Th17 cells produce IL-17 A, IL-l 7F, IL-22; areimportant in antifungal immunity and also autoimmune-related chronic inflammatory diseases (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory myopathies); and are stimulated by IL-I, -6, -21, -23.
Cytokines that mediate cellular migration into tissue are called chemokines. IL-8 is an example. Some cytokines that inhibit the immune system are prostaglandins, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, and IL-10. Unregulated cytokine activation contributes to the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), which is a severe condition with systemic inflammation and organ dysfunction and failure. SIRS is diagnosed if any 2 of the following parameters are present: temperature > 38 or < 36; heart rate > 90; respiratory rate > 20; WBC > 12.0 or> I 0% bands on peripheral smear.
SIRS may have an infectious or a noninfectious etiology. When infection is suspected or demonstrated, the condition is called sepsis. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a may be the most important mediator. TNF-a is a cytokine released by neutrnphils, monocytes, and macrophages in response to endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS). Once released, TNF-a amplifies the signal LPS and transmits it to other cells.
Table : Cytokines
Type Functions
Interleukins
IL-1 Fever, stimulates T cells
IL-2 Proliferates T cells, activates B cells
IL-4 Immunoglobulin switch signal,
suppresses Th 1
IL-6 Cell proliferator, acute-phase reactant
IL-12 Increases IFN-gamma, induces Th1
differentiation
IL-15 Induces TNF-alpha release
IL-17 Important in autoimmune chronic
inflammatory reactions and anti-fungal
immunity.
TNF-alpha Cachexia, stimulates T cell
IFN-gamma Activates T cells, NK cells,
macrophages
TGF-beta Inhibits T-cell proliferation and
pro-inflammatory cytokines

Platelet-derived growth factor

Proliferates fibroblasts
Reference : Internal Medicine

Please log in to rate this.
0 people found this helpful.


immunity (3)

 

Q: What are weak immunity signs?
Feeling to need naps or caffeine
Having allergies or asthma
Having low energy levels
Catching colds easily
Having high blood sugar
Having digestive issues
Mind feels foggy
Wake up feeling sluggish
Food sensitivities
High blood pressure
Having trouble sleeping
Chronic skin conditions
Taking longer time to recover from injury or exercise.

Please log in to rate this.
1 person found this helpful.


 

Q: How the Immune System Works?
A: Normal functioning of the immune system protects the body against the invasion of outside organisms. A variety of organisms are capable of this; however, not all are harmful. The cells of the immune system recognize organisms that invade the body, then isolate and destroy them. At times, the immune system is not able to adequately function in this capacity. This results in infection, immunodeficiency disorders, autoimmune disorders, allergies, and hypersensitivity reactions.
Lymphocytes are the primary cells of the immune system. Lymphocytes are divided into B-cells and T-cells. B-cells provide a humoral immune response, since they produce an antigen-specific antibody. T-cells provide a cellular immune response.
Mature T-cells are composed of CD4 and CD8 cells. CD8 cells are responsible for destroying foreign and viral inhabited cells, and suppress immunological functions. CD4 cells, also known as helper T-cells, stimulate immune functions, such as B-cells and macrophages. A macrophage is a cell whose functions include ingesting foreign or invading cells.

Please log in to rate this.
1 person found this helpful.


 

Q: What are Cytokines?
Cytokines are signaling molecules produced by immune system cells. These molecules help different branches of the immune system talk to each other and respond to threats. After cells release them, they bind target receptors on other cells to alter cell function. The molecules can ramp up the immune system or tone it down.
Examples of cytokine types include colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), interferons (IFNs), interleukins (ILs), and growth factors (Table). Covered here are the most clinically relevant cytokines and their functions.
Cytokines are released in response to an interaction between T cells, an antigen-presenting cell (e.g., a macrophage or dendritic cell), and an antigen that stimulates an immune response. The cytokines produced depend on the type ofT cell involved (termed a ‘T-cell subset’) and the cytokine profile of that subset.
Major subsets include T-helper ThO, Th I, Th2, and Th 17:
ThO cells are unrestricted. They are naive T cells that can respond to novel antigens that the immune system has not yet encountered.
Th1 cells produce IFN-gamma, IL-2; are important in cell-mediated immune response (e.g., delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction); and are stimulated by the IL-12 superfamily.
Th2 cells produce IL-4 , IL-IO; are important in humoral immune response (antibody development and allergic responses); and are stimulated by IL-4, IL-I 8, and IL-33, working together.
Th17 cells produce IL-17 A, IL-l 7F, IL-22; areimportant in antifungal immunity and also autoimmune-related chronic inflammatory diseases (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory myopathies); and are stimulated by IL-I, -6, -21, -23.
Cytokines that mediate cellular migration into tissue are called chemokines. IL-8 is an example. Some cytokines that inhibit the immune system are prostaglandins, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, and IL-10. Unregulated cytokine activation contributes to the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), which is a severe condition with systemic inflammation and organ dysfunction and failure. SIRS is diagnosed if any 2 of the following parameters are present: temperature > 38 or < 36; heart rate > 90; respiratory rate > 20; WBC > 12.0 or> I 0% bands on peripheral smear.
SIRS may have an infectious or a noninfectious etiology. When infection is suspected or demonstrated, the condition is called sepsis. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a may be the most important mediator. TNF-a is a cytokine released by neutrnphils, monocytes, and macrophages in response to endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS). Once released, TNF-a amplifies the signal LPS and transmits it to other cells.
Table : Cytokines
Type Functions
Interleukins
IL-1 Fever, stimulates T cells
IL-2 Proliferates T cells, activates B cells
IL-4 Immunoglobulin switch signal,
suppresses Th 1
IL-6 Cell proliferator, acute-phase reactant
IL-12 Increases IFN-gamma, induces Th1
differentiation
IL-15 Induces TNF-alpha release
IL-17 Important in autoimmune chronic
inflammatory reactions and anti-fungal
immunity.
TNF-alpha Cachexia, stimulates T cell
IFN-gamma Activates T cells, NK cells,
macrophages
TGF-beta Inhibits T-cell proliferation and
pro-inflammatory cytokines

Platelet-derived growth factor

Proliferates fibroblasts
Reference : Internal Medicine

Please log in to rate this.
0 people found this helpful.


healthcare (1)

 

Q: What are weak immunity signs?
Feeling to need naps or caffeine
Having allergies or asthma
Having low energy levels
Catching colds easily
Having high blood sugar
Having digestive issues
Mind feels foggy
Wake up feeling sluggish
Food sensitivities
High blood pressure
Having trouble sleeping
Chronic skin conditions
Taking longer time to recover from injury or exercise.

Please log in to rate this.
1 person found this helpful.